Descriptive or Analytical Research
It includes survey and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive is to describe the state of affairs as it exists at present. The main characteristics of this method is that the researcher has no control of variables.
The researcher can only report on what has happened or what is happening. In analytical research, the researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze them in order to make a critical evaluation of the material.
Applied vs Fundamental Research
Research can either be Applied or Fundamental. Applied research aims at finding resolution of an immediate problem facing the society or an industry. This research is generally conducted on a large scale basis and is expensive. As such, it is often conducted with the support of some financing agency like the national government, public corporation etc.
Fundamental research is normally concerned with generalization as well as the formulation of a theory.
Basic Research attempts to extend the boundaries of knowledge in any area through the discovery of new theories or principles.
It does not focus on the applications of the new knowledge to a specific problem or situation. The knowledge gained can be used to explain the existing theories.
Quantitative Research provides a numerical description of the part of population sample through a data collection process. The results of the data analyzed through this method is usually generated for the entire population.
Qualitative Research includes designer, techniques and measures that produce the non-numeric data such as words or statements for the purpose of understanding the underlying meanings as well as patterns of situations under investigation.